Cardinal Red Jersey 7 Stitched Elway John It is recommended that all CCSM components follow a coding convention. The goal is to create code with a consistent look and feel so that it is easier to read and maintain. To date, no conventions have been specified which apply across all CCSM components. Conventions have been defined for the atmospheric model and are included below.
This section defines a set of specifications, rules, and recommendations for the coding of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). The purpose is to provide a framework that enables users to easily understand or modify the code, or to port it to new computational environments. In addition, it is hoped that adherence to these guidelines will facilitate the exchange and incorporation of new packages and parameterizations into the model. Other works which influenced the development of this standard are "Report on Column Physics Standards" (http://nsipp.gsfc.nasa.gov/infra/) and "European Standards For Writing and Documenting Exchangeable Fortran 90 Code" (http://nsipp.gsfc.nasa.gov/infra/eurorules.html).
integer :: i,j,k ! Spatial indices
real(r8), dimension(plond,plev), intent(in) :: & array1, &! array1 is blah blah blah array2 ! array2 is blah blah blah
Note that the f90 standard defines a limit of 39 continuation lines.
Cardinal Red Jersey 7 Stitched Elway John Code lines which are continuation lines of assignment statements must begin to the right of the column of the assignment operator. Similarly, continuation lines of subroutine calls and dummy argument lists of subroutine declarations must have the arguments aligned to the right of the "(" character. Examples of each of these constructs are:
a = b + c*d + ... + & h*g + e*f call sub76 (x, y, z, w, a, & b, c, d, e) subroutine sub76 (x, y, z, w, a, & b, c, d, e)
call linemsbc (u3(i1,1,1,j,n3m1), v3(i1,1,1,j,n3m1), t3(i1,1,1,j,n3m1), & q3(i1,1,1,j,n3m1), qfcst(i1,1,m,j), xxx) subroutine linemsbc (u, v, t, & q, qfcst, xxx)
! ! Describe what is going on !
Key features of this style are 1) it starts with a "!" in column 1; 2) The text starts in column 3; and 3) the text is offset above and below by a blank comment line. The blank comments could just as well be completely blank lines (i.e. no "!") if the developer prefers.
Use of the operators <, >, <=, >=, ==, /= is recommended instead of their deprecated counterparts Cardinal Red Jersey 7 Stitched Elway John Cardinal Red Jersey 7 Stitched Elway John .lt., .gt., .le., .ge., .eq., and .ne. The motivation is readability.
The second condition in which it is desirable to put multiple routines in a single file is when they are "CONTAIN"ed in a module for the purpose of providing an implicit interface block. This type of construct is strongly encouraged, as it allows the compiler to perform argument consistency checking across routine boundaries. An example is:Manning College Peyton Smokey Grey Jersey New Stitched Limited Vols 16
file 1: subroutine driver use mod1 real :: x, y ... call sub1(x,y) call sub2(y) return end subroutine file 2: module mod1 private real :: var, var2 public sub1, sub2 contains subroutine sub1(a,b) ... return end subroutine subroutine sub2(a) ... return end subroutine end module
The number, type, and dimensionality of the arguments passed to sub1 and sub2 are automatically checked by the compiler.
The final reason to store multiple routines and their data in a single module is that the scope of the data defined in the module can be limited to only the routines which are also in the module. This is accomplished with the "private" clause.
If none of the above conditions hold, it is not acceptable to simply glue together a bunch of functions or subroutines in a single file.
Cardinal Red Jersey 7 Stitched Elway John Note that by implication multiple modules are not allowed in a single file.
The use of common blocks is deprecated in Fortran 90 and their continued use in the CCM is strongly discouraged. Modules are a better way to declare static data. Among the advantages of modules is the ability to freely mix data of various types, and to limit access to contained variables through use of the ONLY and PRIVATE clauses.
!BUGS: !SEE ALSO: !SYSTEM ROUTINES: !FILES USED: !REMARKS: !TO DO: !CALLING SEQUENCE: !CALLED FROM: !LOCAL VARIABLES:
These keywords may be used at the developer's discretion.
Prologue for Functions and Subroutines
If the function or subroutine is included in a module, the keyword !IROUTINE should be used instead of !ROUTINE.
!----------------------------------------------------------------------- ! BOP ! ! !ROUTINE:
(!IROUTINE if the function is in a module) ! ! !INTERFACE: function (Francisco Men's Cooperstown 1 Giants Collection Hybrid Hoodie San Gray Pullover
The term "package" in the following rules refers to a routine or group of routines which takes a well-defined set of input and produces a well-defined set of output. A package can be large, such as a dynamics package, which computes large scale advection for a single timestep. It can also be relatively small, such as a parameterization to compute the effects of gravity wave drag.
- Self-containment A package should refer only to its own modules and subprograms and to those intrinsic functions included in the Fortran 90 standard. This is crucial to attaining plug-compatibility. An exception to the rule might occur when a given computation needs to be done in a consistent manner throughout the model. Thus for example a package which requires saturation vapor pressure would be allowed to call a generic routine used elsewhere in the main model code to compute this quantity.
When exceptions to the above rule apply, (i.e. routines are required by a package which are not f90 intrinsics or part of the package itself) the required routines which violate the rule must be specified within the package.
- Single entry point A package shall provide separate setup and running procedures, each with a single entry point. All initialization of time-invariant data must be done in the setup procedure and these data must not be altered by the running procedure. This distinction is important when the code is being run in a multitasked environment. For example, constructs of the following form will not work when they are multitasked:
subroutine sub logical first/.true./ if (first) then first = .false.
- Communication All communication with the package will be through the argument list or namelist input. The point behind this rule is that packages should not have to know details of the surrounding model data structures, or the names of variables outside of the package. A notable exception to this rule is model resolution parameters. The reason for the exception is to allow compile-time array sizing inside the package. This is often important for efficiency.Amari 2016 Crimson Playoff Football College Championship Jersey 9 Patch Cooper Tide National Red StitchedCrimson Jersey Red Marquis Maze College Stitched Tide 4
- Precision Parameterizations should not rely on vendor-supplied flags to supply a default floating point precision or integer size. The f90 Cardinal Red Jersey 7 Stitched Elway John "kind" feature should be used instead. For example, in CCM4, all routines and modules USE a module named "precision" which defines:
integer, parameter :: r8 = selected_real_kind(12) integer, parameter :: i8 = selected_int_kind(13)
Thus, any variable declared real(r8) will be of sufficient size to maintain 12 decimal digits in their mantissa. Likewise, integer variables declared integer(i8) will be able to represent an integer of at least 13 decimal digits. Note that the names r8 and i8 defined above are meant to reflect the size in bytes of variables which are subsequently defined with that "kind" value.
- Bounds checking All parameterizations must be able to run when a compile-time and/or run-time array bounds checking option is enabled. Thus, constructs of the following form are disallowed:Cardinal Red Jersey 7 Stitched Elway John real(r8) :: arr(1)
where "arr" is an input argument into which the user wishes to index beyond 1. Use of the (*) construct in array dimensioning to circumvent this problem is forbidden because it effectively disables array bounds checking.
- Error conditions When an error condition occurs inside a package, a message describing what went wrong will be printed. The name of the routine in which the error occurred must be included. It is acceptable to terminate execution within a package, but the developer may instead wish to return an error flag through the argument list. If the user wishes to terminate execution within the package, generic CCM termination routine "endrun" should be called instead of issuing a Fortran "stop". Otherwise a message-passing version of the model could hang. Note that this is an exception to the package coding rule that "A package should refer only to its own modules and subprograms and to those intrinsic functions included in the Fortran 90 standard".
- Inter-procedural code analysis Use of a tool to diagnose problems such as array size mismatches, type mismatches, variables which are defined but not used, etc. is strongly encouraged. Flint is one such tool which has proved valuable in this regard. It is not a strict rule that all CCM4 code and packages must be "flint-free", but the developer must be able to provide adequate explanation for why a given coding construct should be retained even though it elicits a complaint from flint. If too many complaints are issued, the diagnostic value of the tool diminishes toward zero.
- Memory management The use of dynamic memory allocation is not discouraged because we realize that there are many situations in which run-time array sizing is desirable. However, this type of memory allocation can cause performance problems on some machines, and some debuggers get confused when trying to diagnose the contents of such variables. Therefore, dynamic memory allocation is allowed only "when necessary". The ability to run a code at a different spatial resolution without recompiling is not considered to be an adequate reason to use dynamically allocated arrays.
The preferable mechanism for dynamic memory allocation is automatic arrays, as opposed to ALLOCATABLE or POINTER arrays for which memory must be explicitly allocated and deallocated. An example of an automatic array is:
subroutine sub(n) real :: a(n) ... return end
The same routine using an allocatable array would look like:
subroutine sub(n) real, allocatable :: a(:) allocate(a(n)) ... deallocate(a) return end
- Constants and magic numbers Magic numbers should be avoided. Physical constants (e.g. pi, gas constants) must NEVER be hardwired into the executable portion of a code. Instead, a mnemonically named variable or parameter should be set to the appropriate value, probably in the setup routine for the package. We realize than many parameterizations rely on empirically derived constants or fudge factors, which are not easy to name. In these cases it is not forbidden to leave such factors coded as magic numbers buried in executable code, but comments should be included referring to the source of the empirical formula.
Hard-coded numbers should never be passed through argument lists. One good reason for this rule is that a compiler flag, which defines a default precision for constants, cannot be guaranteed. Fortran 90 allows specification of the precision of constants through the "_" compile-time operator (e.g. 3.14_r8 or 365_i8). So if you insist on passing a constant through an argument list, you must also include a precision specification. If this is not done, a called routine which declares the resulting dummy argument as, say, real(r8) or 8 bytes, will produce erroneous results if the default floating point precision is 4 byte reals.
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